Discovery, Biology, and Ecology of Natural Enemies of Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis (Col.: Cerambycidae)
Project Leader: Franck HERARD
Adult Anoplophora glabripennis (click to enlarge)
Asian longhorned beetle (ALB)
Adult Anoplophora chinensis (click to enlarge)
Citrus longhorned beetle (CLB)
ALB associated natural enemies found in South Korea and Italy :
Wasp frequently seen predating early stage ALB larvae through bark in South Korea (click to enlarge)
ALB egg parasitized by an undetermined nematode in South Korea (click to enlarge)
Spathius erythrocephalus (Hym. : Braconidae) laying eggs through bark on ALB larvae in Italy (click to enlarge)
Trigonoderus princeps (Hym. : Pteromalidae) laying an egg through bark on early stage ALB larvae in Italy (click to enlarge)
CLB associated natural enemies found in China, Japan, South Korea and Italy :
Aprostocetus fukutai (Hym. : Eulophidae), a specific egg parasitoid of CLB in Asia and Italy (click to enlarge)
Spathius ibarakius (Hym. : Braconidae) a parasitoid of early stage larvae of CLB in South Korea (click to enlarge)
ALB and CLB are both native to eastern Asia. ALB is known from China and Korea, and CLB is known from China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Philippines. ALB was accidentally introduced in urban sites in North America (New York city, New Jersey, Chicago, Toronto, Worcester MA, Clermont OH) and Europe (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, England), and CLB was introduced in Europe (Italy, France, Croatia, the Netherlands). Eradication efforts underway in all of the infested sites have not yet been completely successful.
Biologically based control techniques have to be developed to supplement the ongoing eradication measures, and to take the place of eradication if that strategy fails and the pests move from the urban quarantined areas in port cities to the surrounding hardwood forests. ALB and CLB are polyphagous pests, attacking broad leaf tree species. They show a strong preference for the genera Acer, Populus, Salix, Ulmus, and Betula. ALB’s attacks are found on branches and the upper part of the trunk. CLB’s attacks are found on the lower part of the trunk and on roots rising to the soil surface.
Studies conducted at EBCL have been aimed at making inventories in Europe and eastern Asia and evaluating natural enemies recruited by ALB and CLB. In Europe, eight hymenopteran parasitoid species attacked the early stage larvae of ALB and CLB : Spathius erythrocephalus (Braconidae), Trigonoderus princeps, Cleonymus brevis (Pteromalidae), Eurytoma melanoneura, Eurytoma morio (Eurytomidae), Calosota agrili, Eupelmus aloysii (Eupelmidae), and Sclerodermus sp. (Bethylidae). However, because these species are known in Europe to attack other xylophagous insects, they are not considered safe for release in North America. In Italy, an eulophid parasitoid was found in CLB eggs. It was initially mistakenly described as a new species (Aprostocetus anoplophorae), but it was later determined, by molecular genetic analysis and comparison with the Aprostocetus reared from CLB eggs in east Asian countries, as Aprostocetus fukutai, and the origin of the Italian population is in Japan. It has been shown that A. fukutai is strictly specific to CLB, its phenology is perfectly fitted to its host, and its impact can be high (72% parasitism observed in Italy), which makes it potentially the most promising biological control agent against CLB. In Asia, exploration for ALB and CLB natural enemies in natural environments started in Korea. An undetermined nematode was found in an ALB egg, and Spathius ibarakius (Braconidae) was reared from early larvae of CLB. Explorations are continuing in Korea.
Nathalie Ramualde, Laboratory Research Assistant
ARS - Beneficial Insects Introduction Research Unit, Newark, DE (Dr. Jian J. DUAN).
APHIS-PPQ, Otis lab. (Dr. Juli GOULD, Dr. David W. WILLIAMS).
External to USDA:
SOUTH KOREA (ALB, CLB) : - Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Dr. Ki-Jeong HONG);
- Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon (Dr. Il-Kwon KIM).
ITALY (CLB) : Lombardy Region / Minoprio Foundation, (Dr. Matteo MASPERO), Trust fund “Developing biological control techniques against the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis in Italy.”
Hérard, F., C. Coquempot, and O. Simonot. 2003. Natural enemies of Saperda spp. (Col. Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) in Europe, envisioned as potential agents in biological control of Anoplophora spp. in Europe and the U.S.A. In: Fosbroke, S.L.C. and K.W. Gottschalk [eds.]. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species. Jan. 15-18, 2002, Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-300, USDA-FS, Newtown Square, PA.: 36-37.
Smith, M.T., Y. Zhong-Qi, F. Hérard, R. Fuester, L. Bauer, L. Solter, M. Keena, and V. d’Amico. 2003. Biological control of Anoplophora glabripennis Motsch.: A synthesis of current research programs. In: Fosbroke, S.L.C. and K.W. Gottschalk [eds.]. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species. Jan. 15-18, 2002, Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-300, USDA-FS, Newtown Square, PA.: 87-91.
Unruh, T., R. Short, F. Hérard, K. Chen, K. Hopper, R. Pemberton, J.H. Lee, L. Ertle, K. Swan, R. Fuester, and E. LaGasa. 2003. Introduction and establishment of parasitoids for the biological control of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), in the Pacific Northwest. Biological Control, 28: 332-345.
Cocquempot, C., F. Hérard, P. Reynaud. 2003. Les longicornes asiatiques Anoplophora glabripennis et Anoplophora chinensis, une menace sérieuse pour l'arboriculture fruitière, les plantes d'ornement et les forêts françaises. Phytoma, 561: 24-28.
Cocquempot, C., and F. Hérard. 2003. Les Anoplophora, un danger pour la pépinière et les espaces verts. PHM-revue horticole, Juillet-Août, 449: 28-33.
Delvare, G., M.C. Bon, F. Hérard, C. Cocquempot, M. Maspero, and M. Colombo. 2004. Description of Aprostocetus anoplophorae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a new egg parasitoid of the invasive pest Anoplophora chinensis (Förster) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (N.S.), 40: 227-233.
Smith, M.T., R. Fuester, F. Hérard, and L. Hanks. – 2004. Prospects for inundative release of natural enemies for biological control of Anoplophora glabripennis. In: Gottschalk, K. W. [ed.] Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species. Jan. 14-17, 2003, Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-315, USDA-FS, Newtown Square, PA.:55-61.
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Hérard, F., M. Ciampitti, M. Maspero, H. Krehan, U. Benker, C. Boegel, R. Schrage, L. Bouhot-Delduc, and P. Bialooki. 2006. Anoplophora species in Europe: infestations and management processes. EPPO Bulletin 36: 470-474.
Hérard F., M. Ciampitti, M. Maspero, C. Cocquempot, G. Delvare, J. Lopez, and M. Colombo. 2007a. New associations between the Asian pests Anoplophora spp. and local parasitoids, in Italy (2005). In: Gottschalk, K.W. (ed.) Proceedings, 17th U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species 2006; 2006 January 10-13; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-10, USDA-FS, Newtown Square, PA.: 50.
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Hérard F. and A. Roques. 2009. Current status of Anoplophora spp. in Europe and an update on suppression efforts. InMcManus, Katherine A; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings. 20th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2009; 2009 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-36. USDA-FS, Newtown Square, PA.: 35.
Hérard F., M. Maspero, C. Jucker, M. Colombo, M. Ciampitti, and B. Cavagna 2009a. Anoplophora glabripennis - Eradication programme in Italy (April 2009), EPPO website.
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Haack R.A., F. Hérard, J. Sun, and J. Turgeon. 2010. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: A worldwide perspective, Annual Review of Entomology, 55: 521-546.
Hérard F., M. Maspero, N. Ramualde, and M. Colombo. 2010. Biological control of Anoplophora chinensis and Anoplophora glabripennis (Col.: Cerambycidae), in Italy. Fondazione Minoprio - EBCL, USDA, ARS, ANOCHI project 2007-2008 – Final report, 24pp.
Van der Gaag D.J., G. Sinatra, P.F. Roversi, A. Loomans, F. Hérard, and A. Vukadin. 2010. Evaluation of eradication measures against Anoplophora chinensis in early stage infestations in Europe. EPPO Bulletin, 40: 176-187.
Brabbs, T, D. Collins, F. Hérard, M. Maspero, D. Eyre. 2015 Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe. Pest Management science, 71: 7–14.